会場：東京芸術大学 北千住キャンパス 音楽学部音楽環境創造科 第一講義室
登壇者：Noriko Manabe (Princeton University), Martin Roberts (Independent Scholar)
1) Noriko Manabe (Princeton University)
Title: Toward a Typology of Intertextuality in Protest Songs: Revolution Remixed in Antinuclear Songs of Post-Fukushima Japan
Despite Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan has pursued a program of expanding nuclear power, enabled by tight relationships among the electric power companies, central and local governments, and the media that go back to the beginning of the Cold War. Since Fukushima, public opposition to nuclear power has grown widespread in the face of the perceived lack of trustworthy, timely information on radiation from officials. Nonetheless, the mainstream media has carried little non-official information and ignored protests, while some antinuclear figures have suffered consequences. Under these circumstances, music—in sound demonstrations, performances, and cyberspace—has emerged as an important conduit for the voicing of antinuclear sentiments.
Protest songs, by their very nature, are highly intertextual; they refer to current issues either directly (e.g., through lyrics that quote officials) or obliquely through metaphors. In addition, they often refer to historical movements, thereby accessing the listener’s feelings about that movement and compounding the songs’ power through semantic snowballing (cf. Turino). Classifying types of intertextuality would be useful for analyzing how musicians choose to convey their messages, and how they are received.
Using Genette’s classification of transtextuality as a starting point (with references to Lacasse), I formulate a typology of intertextuality for protest songs. These types include hypertextual covers (with changed lyrics), remakes and reinterpretations, mash-ups, metaphors, and allegories; intertextual quotations; paratextual uses of promotional or concessionary materials; and architextual adaptations of style for strategic purposes. In order to analyze reception, I overlay Peircean models of how signs take on meaning and are interpreted. My analytical process considers signifying parameters (e.g., texts, music, performance, visuals), referred events, and dynamic responses.
I apply this process to analyze the music of the Japanese antinuclear movement post-Fukushima, overlaying findings from interviews with artists and protesters, to describe the methods by which musicians deliver their antinuclear messages. Through writing new lyrics to existing songs, quoting hip-hop classics by Gil Scott-Heron and Public Enemy, performing satirically as electric-power officials, adapting light-hearted matsuri (festival) styles, or using metaphors (e.g., Godzilla), musicians comment on nuclear policy and draw parallels between this movement and World War II, antiwar protests, and African-American struggles.
2) Martin Roberts (Independent Scholar)
Title: THE SMALLEST MUSIC IN THE WORLD: VIDEOGAME SUBCULTURES AND NOSTALGIA FOR THE FUTURE
This paper addresses the emergence over the past decade of a new kind of digital musical object which I call nanomusic. Variously known as 8bit, blip-hop, or chiptune music, these new musical objects originated through the hacking of the sound-cards of vintage console video games produced by companies such as Atari and Nintendo, and were aesthetically inspired by their soundtracks. In recent years, the rapid growth of mobile software development and social networking sites have intensified the production and exchange of such musics, which are today the focus of a thriving subcultural community in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The paper will consider nanomusic in relation to three main areas: new media histories, including mp3 and other digital music formats, peer-to-peer networking, and mobile technologies; DIY culture, hacking, and subcultural resistance; and recent critiques of the “retromania” of postmodernist media culture. Attention will also be given to questions of aesthetics, notably hybridization with other forms of popular music, and performance at festivals and other live-action venues.